Things to KNOW
- The primary responsibility for implementing the Almaty Programme rests with landlocked and transit developing countries. However, the cost implications of establishing an effi cient transit transport system signifi cantly surpass LLDCs’ capacity. Taking into consideration that most of the transit countries are themselves developing countries with limited resources, the support of development partners in the implementation of the Almaty goals is therefore needed. Massive investments in transboundary infrastructure are needed if landlocked developing countries are to realize their economic potential.
Things to DO
- Create the conditions, including a sound regulatory framework, in which resources can be generated, attracted and effectively mobilized to address development challenges and achieve full implementation of the Almaty Programme.
- Facilitate an external environment supportive of a full and timely realization of the objective of the Programme of Action.
- Provide LLDCs and transit developing countries with fi nancial and technical support in the form of grants and/or loans on the most possible concessional terms.
- Encourage increased foreign direct investment and transfer of technology to contribute to the development and upgrading of transit transport infrastructure.
- Support institutional capacity building in LLDCs and transit developing countries.
- Channel Aid for Trade funding to infrustructure development projects and support for trade facilitation measures in LLDCs.
Key Achievements and Challenges
- Increased international fi nancial support has enabled LLDCs to implement some key activities of the Almaty Programme of Action but much remains to be done to fi ll the enormous fi nancing gap in infrastructure development.
- Since the adoption of the Almaty Programme, fl ows of ODA to LLDCs from traditional donors have increased from about $12 billion in 2003, to $25.3 billion in 2010. This refl ects an increase of more than 10 % annually since 2003. Development assistance for transport, storage and communications increased from $775 million to 1.9 billion from 2003 to 2010.
- Private sector’s participation in infrastructure development remains heavily concentrated in ICT and extractive industries. Foreign direct investment to LLDCs has decreased between 2009 and 2010, from 26.2 billion to 23 billion. The external debt burden has declined from 68 percent of gross national income in 2003 to 47%t in 2009, due to the Heavily Indebted Countries Initiative and the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative.