Implementation, follow-up and review

Implementation, follow-up and review should be undertaken at the national, subregional, regional and global levels. Follow-up and review should be a continuous process aimed at reinforcing partnerships and mutual accountability at all levels and by all actors.

At the national level, Governments are invited to mainstream the present Programme of Action into their national and sectoral development strategies for its effective implementation. Landlocked developing countries and transit developing countries are encouraged to establish national coordination mechanisms, where appropriate. Monitoring and review should involve all relevant stakeholders, as appropriate.

At the subregional and regional levels, monitoring and review should be undertaken through existing intergovernmental processes. Regional and subregional organizations, including regional economic communities and regional development banks, are invited to mainstream the implementation of the present Programme of Action into their relevant programmes, in coordination with the Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States, within their existing mandates, and the regional commissions. The regional commissions are encouraged to submit analytical reports on the implementation of the present Programme of Action. The relevant regional and subregional organizations and the private sector should be actively involved in the sessions of the regional commissions in that regard.

At the global level, the General Assembly should continue to undertake reviews of the implementation of the present Programme of Action through reports of the Secretary-General. The governing bodies of organizations in the United Nations system are invited to mainstream the implementation of this Programme of Action into their programme of work, and to conduct sectoral and thematic reviews of the Programme, as appropriate. The private sector should be involved in the reviews at the global level.

In accordance with the mandate given by the General Assembly, the Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States will ensure coordinated follow-up to and effective monitoring of and reporting on the implementation of the present Programme of Action, and will undertake advocacy efforts at the national, regional and global levels. The Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States, in collaboration with other relevant stakeholders, should work on developing relevant indicators for measuring the progress on implementing the Programme of Action in landlocked developing countries, within their existing mandates.

The General Assembly is invited to consider conducting a comprehensive high-level midterm review on the implementation of the present Programme of Action. The General Assembly, towards the end of the decade, is also invited to consider holding a third United Nations Conference on Landlocked Developing Countries, in order to undertake a comprehensive appraisal of the implementation of this Programme of Action and to decide on subsequent action.

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